Angus Maddison’s Historical Statistics
It gathers statistical data on bilateral international trade, from 1962 onwards. It is a reference database for research in economics and international trade.
Economic Freedom of the World
External Wealth of Nations Mark II database
Financial Structure Dataset
Penn World Table – Mark 9.1
Polity IV Project
This publication offers statistical series and respective methodological notes for a wide range of economic variables, and for a relatively long period, since the late 40 's or early 50 's, depending on the variables.
The vast database of the World Bank covers all kinds of data related to economics (eg., "Global Economic Prospects" and "Global Financial Development"), Economic Growth (eg., "Education Statistcs") and Economic Development (eg., "Proverty and Inequality Database") of about 214 countries.